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Amazon copied merchandise, rigged search outcomes to advertise its personal manufacturers: Report

Amazon.com Inc has been repeatedly accused of knocking off merchandise it sells on its web site and of exploiting its huge trove of inside information to advertise its personal merchandise on the expense of different sellers. The corporate has denied the accusations.

However hundreds of pages of inside Amazon paperwork examined by Reuters – together with emails, technique papers and enterprise plans – present the corporate ran a scientific marketing campaign of making knockoffs and manipulating search outcomes to spice up its personal product traces in India, one of many firm’s largest progress markets.

The paperwork reveal how Amazon’s private-brands staff in India secretly exploited inside information from Amazon.in to repeat merchandise bought by different firms, after which supplied them on its platform. The workers additionally stoked gross sales of Amazon private-brand merchandise by rigging Amazon’s search outcomes in order that the corporate’s merchandise would seem, as one 2016 technique report for India put it, “in the first 2 or three … search results” when clients have been purchasing on Amazon.in.

Among the many victims of the technique: a well-liked shirt model in India, John Miller, which is owned by an organization whose chief government is Kishore Biyani, often called the nation’s “retail king.” Amazon determined to “follow the measurements of” John Miller shirts all the way down to the neck circumference and sleeve size, the doc states.

The interior paperwork additionally present that Amazon staff studied proprietary information about different manufacturers on Amazon.in, together with detailed details about buyer returns. The intention: to determine and goal items – described as “reference” or “benchmark” merchandise – and “replicate” them. As a part of that effort, the 2016 inside report laid out Amazon’s technique for a model the corporate initially created for the Indian market known as “Solimo.” The Solimo technique, it mentioned, was easy: “use information from Amazon.in to develop products and then leverage the Amazon.in platform to market these products to our customers.”

The Solimo undertaking in India has had worldwide impression: Scores of Solimo-branded well being and family merchandise are actually supplied on the market on Amazon’s US web site, Amazon.com.

The 2016 doc additional exhibits that Amazon staff engaged on the corporate’s personal merchandise, often called personal manufacturers or personal labels, deliberate to accomplice with the producers of the merchandise focused for copying. That is as a result of they discovered that these producers make use of “unique processes which impact the end quality of the product.”

The doc, entitled “India Private Brands Program,” states: “It is difficult to develop this expertise across products and hence, to ensure that we are able to fully match quality with our reference product, we decided to only partner with the manufacturers of our reference product.” It termed such producer experience “Tribal Knowledge.”

That is the second in a collection of tales based mostly on inside Amazon paperwork that present a uncommon, unvarnished look, within the firm’s personal phrases, into enterprise practices that it has denied for years.

Amazon has been accused earlier than by staff who labored on private-brand merchandise of exploiting proprietary information and manipulating search outcomes to extend gross sales of the corporate’s personal items.

In sworn testimony earlier than the US Congress in 2020, Amazon founder Jeff Bezos defined that the e-commerce big prohibits its staff from utilizing the info on particular person sellers to assist its private-label enterprise. And, in 2019, one other Amazon government testified that the corporate doesn’t use such information to create its personal private-label merchandise or alter its search outcomes to favor them.

However the inside paperwork seen by Reuters present for the primary time that, at the very least in India, manipulating search outcomes to favor Amazon’s personal merchandise, in addition to copying different sellers’ items, have been a part of a proper, clandestine technique at Amazon – and that high-level executives have been instructed about it. The paperwork present that two executives reviewed the India technique – senior vice presidents Diego Piacentini, who has since left the corporate, and Russell Grandinetti, who presently runs Amazon’s worldwide client enterprise.

In a written response to questions for this report, Amazon mentioned: “As Reuters hasn’t shared the documents or their provenance with us, we are unable to confirm the veracity or otherwise of the information and claims as stated. We believe these claims are factually incorrect and unsubstantiated.” The corporate didn’t elaborate. The assertion additionally didn’t handle questions from Reuters concerning the proof within the paperwork that Amazon staff copied different firms’ merchandise for its personal manufacturers.

The corporate mentioned the best way it shows search outcomes does not favor private-brand merchandise. “We display search results based on relevance to the customer’s search query, irrespective of whether such products have private brands offered by sellers or not,” Amazon mentioned.

Amazon additionally mentioned that it “strictly prohibits the use or sharing of non-public, seller-specific data for the benefit of any seller, including sellers of private brands,” and that it investigates stories of its staff violating that coverage. Piacentini and Grandinetti did not reply to requests for remark.

The unfiltered perception the paperwork provide into Amazon’s aggressive use of its market energy may intensify the authorized and regulatory strain the corporate is dealing with in lots of nations.

Amazon is beneath investigation in america, Europe and India for alleged anti-competitive practices that damage different companies. In India, the allegations embrace unfairly favoring its personal branded merchandise. Amazon declined to touch upon the investigations.

Jonas Koponen, an antitrust legal professional with Linklaters LLP in Brussels, mentioned the Reuters findings on Amazon’s practices in India would doubtless curiosity the European Fee, which is probing whether or not the corporate has used personal vendor information to spice up its personal retail enterprise. India has cooperation agreements with america and the European Fee to change data associated to enforcement of antitrust legal guidelines.

“When any one competition authority is looking into aspects of one of these globally present organizations’ behavior, they will certainly be interested in understanding what evidence there is in other parts of the world and the extent to which that evidence relates to the practices that they themselves are investigating,” Koponen mentioned.

The paperwork additionally assist criticism of Amazon laid out by Lina Khan, the brand new chair of the US Federal Commerce Fee, or FTC. Khan printed a paper in 2017 that argued that Amazon’s private-brand enterprise raised anti-competitive considerations.

“It is third-party sellers who bear the initial costs and uncertainties when introducing new products; by merely spotting them, Amazon gets to sell products only once their success has been tested,” she wrote. “The anticompetitive implications here seem clear.”

Amazon filed a petition in June with the FTC asking that Khan recuse herself from all issues associated to the corporate due to “her repeated proclamations that Amazon has violated the antitrust laws.”

Khan and the FTC did not reply to requests for remark.

Within the first article on this collection, Reuters reported in February that Amazon had for years given preferential therapy to a couple large sellers on its Indian platform, and used these sellers to bypass rules designed to guard the nation’s small retailers. That report triggered motion by India’s predominant monetary crime-fighting company, which sought data and paperwork from Amazon. As well as, the nation’s antitrust watchdog submitted the story as an exhibit in a courtroom battle with Amazon over its investigation into the corporate’s alleged anti-competitive practices. The courtroom rejected Amazon’s request to halt the probe.

“We are committed to extending cooperation to all authorities in India and are confident about our compliance,” Amazon mentioned in its assertion to Reuters.

Like many different retailers, Amazon views its personal manufacturers as a significant driver of elevated profitability. Personal-brand merchandise usually have greater revenue margins than regular retail manufacturers as a result of manufacturing and advertising and marketing prices could be decrease.

An inside e-mail despatched by Amazon government Grandinetti to a bunch of firm executives in December 2018 acknowledged: “We believe that over the next several years, Private Brands will be one of the most important growth and profitability drivers in the Consumer business.” Grandinetti added that firm executives believed personal manufacturers “can achieve 10% penetration” of the corporate’s client enterprise worldwide over the subsequent 5 years.

Introducing Amazon’s personal manufacturers was particularly crucial in India. The corporate started its e-commerce foray there in 2013, and shortly recorded thousands and thousands of {dollars} in losses, one inside doc exhibits. To make the enterprise “sustainable in the long run,” the 2016 Personal Manufacturers doc notes, Amazon launched into a method centered on introducing its current personal manufacturers, resembling AmazonBasics, and new ones tailor-made to India.

The 2016 doc acknowledged a purpose: provide Amazon’s personal items in 20% to 40% of all product classes on Amazon.in inside two years. Amazon would obtain profitability in its private-brand enterprise by “only launching products that will provide more margin than comparable reference brand products.”

Amazon predicted private-brand gross sales would attain practically $600 million by 2020 in India, in line with a 2017 inside enterprise technique doc. “We will be amongst the Top 3 brands in each sub-category that we play in,” the doc acknowledged.

Whether or not it achieved that gross sales purpose is not clear; Amazon does not disclose its private-brand gross sales in India. The corporate did not touch upon the strategic targets and different particulars from the paperwork reported on this article.

An Amazon press launch in 2018 revealed simply how profitable its private-brand enterprise was turning into in India. Celebrating “record sales” throughout an annual promotion, the discharge acknowledged, “Amazon Brands saw its best performance ever with 11X jump over last Great Indian Festival.”

Right now, Amazon.in lists hundreds of Amazon-branded choices – from rubbish luggage, mattress sheets and cleaning soap to air conditioners and televisions. In line with the web site, many are best-sellers.

One key particular person concerned in 2016 with Amazon’s private-brand enterprise in India was Amit Nanda, who later turned a rustic director of this system, in line with his LinkedIn profile. He holds an MBA from the Indian Institute of Administration, Ahmedabad, one of many nation’s prime enterprise faculties. Earlier than becoming a member of Amazon in 2014, in line with his LinkedIn profile, he labored at Citibank and the Indian arm of consumer-goods big Unilever.

As Amazon was reviewing its private-brand technique in India in 2016, Amazon India staff had a gathering with Grandinetti. A longtime Amazon supervisor, on the time he was in control of content material for Kindle, the corporate’s fashionable studying machine. However Amazon had introduced that he would quickly lead its worldwide client enterprise, together with India.

Through the assembly, Nanda was assigned numerous duties, in line with one Amazon doc. Amongst them: The India personal manufacturers “business should be large and profitable. Build for scale.”

Nanda declined to remark for this story.



With its inhabitants of 1.3 billion folks and a rising center class, India represents an enormous and probably profitable marketplace for Amazon. However it’s additionally a rustic the place international e-commerce gamers face a posh and protectionist regulatory regime.

The nation’s brick-and-mortar retailers comprise an vital political constituency for Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi. Involved that predatory pricing may damage these retailers, India prohibits international e-commerce gamers from promoting most items on to customers, as they do in lots of different nations. Amazon and different international firms are restricted to working a web based market of third-party sellers, with nobody vendor allowed to carry a bonus over one other. Because of this, Amazon sells most of its personal manufacturers by way of different distributors.

In launching its private-brand enterprise, inside paperwork present how Amazon used its Indian web site to realize a transparent edge for its personal merchandise on the platform. The creation of its Solimo model affords a case research.

In line with the interior paperwork, the phrase Solimo is derived from Solimões – the identify for the higher stretches of the Amazon River in Brazil.

With the Solimo line, Amazon aimed to supply objects that equaled or exceeded the standard of competing manufacturers however have been 10% to fifteen% cheaper, the 2016 Personal Manufacturers doc exhibits. Amazon staff studied completely different product classes, and in contrast their general market dimension with how nicely these segments have been doing on Amazon.in. They then focused classes resembling residence furnishings. Amazon discovered that furnishings was a $2 billion enterprise in India – however its personal web site’s three-month gross sales in mid-2014 totaled about $1 million.

In its evaluation, Amazon used a metric known as “glance views” that quantified which merchandise have been being considered by clients on its web site. Explaining why it zeroed in on look views, the 2016 Amazon doc famous that monitoring its India web site visitors supplies “an opportunity to influence interested customers who are actively considering” a purchase order in a product class.

Amazon has mentioned a number of the information its private-brand groups use in launching merchandise is public – resembling the web site’s rankings of best-selling merchandise. That is how Amazon described the system to a US congressional subcommittee final yr: “Like anyone else at Amazon or in the general public, members of these teams can also visit Amazon’s product detail pages to learn a product’s best seller ranking and read customer reviews and star ratings to assess whether a product is selling well in Amazon’s store.”

However seven present and former Indian sellers on Amazon.in instructed Reuters they cannot entry inside gross sales information of rival manufacturers supplied on the web site. 4 of the sellers mentioned they’ll entry look views, however just for their very own merchandise. Amazon has entry to extra information on sellers, together with the variety of product models shipped and particulars about buyer returns, the 2016 doc exhibits, giving it a bonus in market intelligence.

Amazon’s personal use of the info to develop and promote its private-brand merchandise “destroys the level playing field,” mentioned one present vendor, who requested to stay nameless.

Amazon mentioned in its assertion that it “does not give preferential treatment to any seller on its marketplace.” The corporate additionally mentioned it “identifies selection gaps based on customer preferences at an aggregate level only and shares this information with all sellers.”



As soon as Amazon’s private-brand staff had determined which classes to enter, they reviewed gross sales and customer-review information on Amazon.in to determine “reference” or “benchmark” manufacturers to “replicate,” the 2016 private-brand doc confirmed.

Within the case of Solimo, the 2016 doc acknowledged that to make sure the model’s items meet “customer requirements in terms of performance we identify and replicate these reference products.” Amazon had no touch upon the Solimo undertaking.

Amazon’s technique additionally known as for producers of its private-brand merchandise to make use of different firms’ items as fashions to develop samples for pre-production testing.

Among the many manufacturers Amazon staff deliberate to “benchmark,” the doc states, have been American ones – “Old Navy/GAP” males’s shirts. The doc doesn’t point out whether or not the workers adopted by way of.

Hole Inc, which owns the Previous Navy and Hole manufacturers, declined to remark.

The rival merchandise Amazon focused additionally included different manufacturers fashionable in India. For pots and pans, a “reference brand” was Status, one in every of India’s largest kitchen-equipment firms. For males’s shirts, the benchmarks included Peter England and Louis Philippe, each made in India by conglomerate Aditya Birla Group.

Amazon additionally focused John Gamers, a menswear model then owned by Indian conglomerate ITC Ltd.

Chandru Kalro, managing director of TTK Status, which owns the Status model in India, instructed Reuters, “We have no knowledge of us being a ‘reference brand’ for Amazon and we don’t know what it means to be an Amazon reference brand.”

Aditya Birla Group declined to remark. ITC didn’t reply to a request for remark.

In early 2016, Amazon private-brand staff have been internally noting the success of Xessentia, a clothes model they’d launched on Amazon.in in partnership with a vendor. The vendor owned the model; Amazon designed the merchandise.

Gross sales of Xessentia males’s enterprise shirts have been surging, and within the first quarter of 2016 had develop into that class’s second-most fashionable model on the India website after the American model Arrow, licensed to the Indian firm Arvind Fashions. To create the Xessentia line, Amazon had used Louis Philippe because the benchmark model, as a result of it was “premium and popular,” the 2016 doc mentioned.

However one thing was amiss: About one in each 12 Xessentia shirts was being returned within the first quarter of 2016 for sizing points. Greater than 350 have been returned as a result of clients complained they have been too small.

Amazon staff performed a “deep dive,” the 2016 doc stories, by poring over a yr’s value of information from Amazon.in, together with buyer complaints and return numbers for Xessentia, Arrow and 7 different manufacturers. They discovered {that a} model of males’s enterprise shirts in India known as John Miller had far outsold Xessentia shirts, regardless of carrying “a similar” common promoting worth. John Miller additionally had about half the speed of buyer returns for “quality issues.”

The upshot: “Our learning is that our customer is different from the Louis Philippe customer and doesn’t prefer this fit,” the 2016 doc acknowledged. “We concluded to follow the measurements of Business Shirt of John Miller for Xessentia because of wide acceptance with our customer base.”

So Amazon revised the match of Xessentia shirts to repeat John Miller’s sizing, matching it all the way down to the neck, shoulder, armhole, sleeve and waist dimensions.

Amazon did not reply to questions on its Xessentia undertaking. Arvind Fashions declined to remark.

John Miller is a model owned by retail mogul Kishore Biyani. Amazon and Biyani later turned enterprise companions in India, however had a falling out. Amazon is now embroiled in a authorized battle with Biyani over the proposed sale of his retail property to Reliance, which is run by billionaire Mukesh Ambani, thought of India’s wealthiest man. Ambani and Amazon are fierce rivals, with the Indian magnate lately launching his personal e-commerce enterprise.

A spokesperson for Biyani’s Future Group mentioned the corporate was “shocked and surprised” to study that Amazon was utilizing Indian manufacturers to construct its personal. “They are in a powerful position of being both an online marketplace operator and a seller and collector of data,” the spokesperson mentioned in an announcement to Reuters. “This is leading to misuse of consumer and seller data giving them the power to kill Indian entrepreneurs and their brands.”

After the launch of Xessentia, Amazon launched a model of US-and-European-style garments in India known as Image.

“For every product line identified for launch, we will identify an optimal reference brand based on customer reviews and size of business,” state the plans for Image and one other personal model. “The replication of the ‘Fit’ of this reference brand will be a crucial step in our product development process.”

The Image model remains to be going robust. On Oct. 11, 11 of the highest 25 best-selling males’s formal shirts on Amazon.in carried the Image model identify.



Amazon has been repeatedly accused in america of copying product designs.

In 2018, home-goods retailer Williams-Sonoma Inc filed a federal lawsuit towards Amazon, accusing the e-commerce big of copying its proprietary designs for chairs, lamps and different merchandise for an Amazon personal model known as Rivet.

“Amazon has engaged in a systematic campaign of copying,” the lawsuit alleged. The displays filed within the case included footage of similar-looking merchandise from Amazon and a Williams-Sonoma model. In courtroom filings, Amazon denied the copying allegations. Final yr, the 2 events reached a confidential settlement. Each did not remark concerning the case for this story.

Joey Zwillinger, co-founder of Allbirds Inc, a San Francisco-based maker of sustainable footwear and attire, instructed Reuters that round 2016 or 2017, Amazon started inviting his firm to promote its items on the e-commerce big’s platform. Allbirds mentioned no.

Then, in 2019, Amazon launched a wool-blend sneaker that intently resembled a well-liked Allbirds wool shoe – and bought for a lot much less. Zwillinger mentioned the Amazon product used cheaper materials however that the design was so related, “it’s hard to tell the difference in a silhouette.”

Allbirds did not sue. There are all the time delicate variations in designs, and copycat instances could be time-consuming, Zwillinger mentioned. However he and Allbirds’ different co-founder posted on-line a letter to Bezos, noting that the Amazon product was “strikingly similar to our Wool Runner” sneaker. Writing that Allbirds was “flattered at the similarities,” they supplied to assist Amazon use extra sustainable supplies in its product.

Zwillinger instructed Reuters that they did not obtain a response. Amazon had no remark.

In India, Amazon did not simply knock off merchandise for itself. Certainly one of its staff urged that one other vendor contemplate replicating an organization’s merchandise.

In 2020, Amazon India worker Aditi Singh suggested Mohit Anand, who was then promoting merchandise on Amazon.in, on how he may succeed on the platform. She urged that Anand “replicate” a furnishings firm’s merchandise, in line with a recording of a cellphone name reviewed by Reuters.

Noting that an Indian furnishings model known as DeckUp was promoting nicely on Amazon.in, Singh urged that if Anand have been to “replicate DeckUp’s range” and cost decrease costs, then the merchandise “will sell very well” on Amazon.in. Anand instructed Reuters that he did not take the recommendation.

Utheja Pulluri, DeckUp’s founder and a former Amazon India worker, mentioned that so long as the e-commerce big was “not sharing confidential data on us, I don’t have a problem … This appears to be business guidance, a generic insight.”

Singh referred a Reuters request for remark to Amazon’s public relations staff. The corporate did not remark.



How excessive merchandise rank when clients search the Amazon web site is crucial to on-line sellers’ success. An inside doc in 2017 famous that greater than half of customers’ clicks on search outcomes are for the merchandise listed within the prime eight.

Amazon has mentioned its search algorithms do not favor its private-brand merchandise. Requested in the course of the 2019 congressional listening to whether or not Amazon alters algorithms to direct customers to its personal items, affiliate common counsel Nate Sutton replied: “The algorithms are optimized to predict what customers want to buy regardless of the seller.”

But the interior Amazon paperwork present that in India, Amazon manipulated search outcomes to favor its personal merchandise.

The corporate used a way known as “search seeding” to spice up the rankings of its AmazonBasics and Solimo model items, in line with the 2016 private-brand report. Referring to Amazon’s product codes – often called ASINs, or Amazon Commonplace Identification Numbers – the report acknowledged: “We used search seeding for newly launched ASINs to ensure that they feature in the first 2 or three ASINs in search results.”

The doc additionally referred to a different method that gave Amazon an edge: “search sparkles.”

“We have aggressively used search sparkles on PC, Mobile and App to specifically promote Solimo products on relevant customer searches from ‘All Product Search’ and Category search,” the 2016 private-brand report mentioned.

In line with one present and two former Amazon staff, search seeding and search sparkles are digital strategies the corporate has used to direct clients to sure merchandise.

Two of the sources mentioned Amazon has used seeding to change search rankings to spice up merchandise, resembling new ones, whose gross sales are so low that there is inadequate information for the corporate’s know-how to rank them. Sparkles are banners that Amazon has planted above search outcomes to direct clients to sure merchandise the corporate desires to advertise.

Whereas such instruments have respectable makes use of to help internet buyers discover sure scorching new merchandise, utilizing search seeding to spice up the rankings of Amazon’s personal merchandise hurts rival retailers’ gross sales on the platform, one of many former staff mentioned.

Search seeding and sparkles have been each used to advertise AmazonBasics merchandise on the corporate’s India platform, the 2016 doc reveals. Inside months of the launch of AmazonBasics in India in 2015, 4 of its merchandise have been “#1 Bestsellers in their category week after week,” the 2016 doc mentioned. It added that “promos” have been positioned on “detail pages of competitor products to direct traffic to AmazonBasics brands products.”

Piyush Tulsian, a New Delhi retailer of laptop equipment, instructed Reuters he used to earn about $1,500 a month promoting mouse pads on Amazon.in made by Logitech Worldwide, which is headquartered in Switzerland.

Then, about two years in the past, he mentioned he began noticing that his gross sales have been dropping. He mentioned he found that clients who considered particulars concerning the Logitech mouse pad he was promoting for $21 have been proven an commercial for an AmazonBasics pad that was about 60% cheaper. The Logitech product additionally started showing a lot decrease in search outcomes, he mentioned.

“It’s very frustrating,” mentioned Tulsian, who’s 36. “They are mistreating sellers.” He mentioned he stopped promoting the Logitech mouse pad on Amazon.in and was caught with 150 unsold ones.

Amazon had no remark. Logitech declined to remark.

Controversy over the enterprise practices of international e-commerce firms in India has heated up in current months. In June, the federal government proposed draft rules that threaten to impose additional restrictions on Amazon and different e-commerce firms, together with native gamers, after receiving complaints by customers and merchants of unfair enterprise practices. The proposed guidelines may prohibit Amazon and others from promoting their very own private-brand merchandise in India.

Later that month, India’s commerce minister accused giant e-commerce firms of flouting native legal guidelines and mentioned he had noticed “a little bit of arrogance,” notably by American ones. The opposite large platform in India is Flipkart, owned by American retail big Walmart Inc. Flipkart did not remark.

In early July, Amazon introduced it might introduce to India a program it already affords companies elsewhere. Referred to as the “Intellectual Property Accelerator” program, it offers sure sellers on Amazon.in entry to providers offered by intellectual-property consultants and regulation corporations.

One intention, Amazon mentioned, is to assist sellers “protect their brands.”




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